The 28-year-old left-hander raced to his second List A hundred in just 83 balls before moving up a gear, needing just 45 more deliveries to go from 100 to 200 at the Hurstville Oval.
By the time Matthew Kuhnemann had him stumped in the 46th over to end the 148-ball blitz, Short had notched up the third-highest score in men’s one-day cricket.
Alistair Brown’s 268 for Surrey in a 2002 match against Glamorgan remains the highest List A score, while Indian Rohit Sharma’s 264 against Sri Lanka in 2014 remains the benchmark in one-day internationals.
Short’s 23 sixes, with his team tweeting that one of them shattered a window, is also a record in one-day cricket.
New Zealander Colin Munro is the only other batsman to smash 23 sixes at domestic level in a first-class innings.
Short made his one-day international debut against England at Cardiff earlier this year and has also played 10 Twenty20 Internationals.
Western Australia were eventually dismissed for 387 in 47 overs with Marcus Stoinis’ 27 the next highest score for the team.